Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition,
Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces
and Tablet and Touch Computers

(DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3018.8322)

This is a posting of a bibliography on gesture user interfaces, on-line character recognition (a.k.a. dynamic character recognition, a.k.a. pen computing), and related topics, including both hardware and software. It has been a continuing work-in-progress since 1987. I am posting it as a service to those with interest in the field. It may also be of special interest to anyone investigating any the areas of digitizer tablets, touchscreens, character recognition, tablet-PC GUIs, and multi-touch computing (such as the iPhone and Touch iPod), capacitive touch and proximity sensors, and context-dependent intrepretation of user input. It covers the time period from approximately 1891 (first electronic tablet) through 1914 (first handwriting-recognition/gesture input system) to the present day.

(For additional information on Rueters-Ward Services, including a CV for Jean Renard Ward for consulting including as an expert witness:

The bibliography is broken up into multiple sections by date of publication, for convenience in printing:

                  1891 to 1970          1971 to 1975          1976 to 1980          1981 to 1983
                  1984 to 1985          1985 to 1986          1987 to 1988          1989 to 1990
                  1991 to 1993          1994 to 1995          1996 to 1998          1999 to 2000
                  2001 to 2003          2004 to 2005          2006 to 2007          2008 to 2010
                  2011 to 2013                   2014 to 2015          2016 to present                  
         Pictures and Videos                                                                                 

When was Pen Computing invented?

Check this out:

In 1992, back in the early days (well, much earlier than now) of pen and touchscreen computing, I gave a presentation at the Boston Computer Society entitled Notes on the "unknown" history of Pen Computing.

Dan Bricklin has posted a video of the presentation on

Note: I find the very early references to technology interesting. For example,

Thank you,

Jean Renard Ward

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