History of Pen and Gesture Computing:
Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition,
Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers

(DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3018.8322)
Copyright © 20190110 16:59:52 EST

This posting of an annotated bibliography on gesture user interfaces, on-line character recognition (a.k.a. dynamic character recognition, a.k.a. pen and touch computing), both hardware and software, has been a continuing work-in-progress since the 1980s. It includes information on related application topics, such as digital rights management (DRM), portable computing, cryptographic communications, and biometric authentication. I am posting it as a service to those with interest in the field. It may also be of special interest to anyone investigating any of the areas of digitizer tablets, touchscreens, character recognition, touch/gesture user interfaces, multi-touch computing, passive and active tactile feedback, touch and proximity sensors, augmented reality, haptics, context-dependent intrepretation of user input, and applications including the same. It covers the time period from approximately 1891 (first electronic tablet) through 1914 (first gesture/handwriting-recognition input system) to the present day.

Like any subject, the focus has evolved and modulated over the decades, and this bibliography follows these topics both forward in time, and historically back in time. Tablets and touchscreens are have evolved into pointing, locating and gesturing sensors with three-dimensional input with six degrees of freedom and more. Earlier work on handwriting recognition, with handwritten symbols sometimes used for command input as "gestures", has evolved to be part of a much broader range of gestures, including in-air and 3D gestures. Command user interfaces have merged with direct manipulation, and then with graphical user interfaces and virtual reality. Authenticating handwritten signatures has evolved to additional forms of biometrics. Haptic feedback has evolved from "simple" force-feedback to encompass audio, tactile, and visual signaling. Virtual reality systems seem to have waxed and waned, and waxed again.

It is, indeed, a rich and complicated field, in all its aspects.

Jean Renard Ward For additional information on Rueters-Ward Services,
including my CV for consulting or as an expert witness:
URL:   http://www.ruetersward.com.)
e-mail: jrward@alum.mit.edu
Google Voice: 617-600-4095

References from the approximate years 2019 to (present).

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Most of the time,
a magic wand turns out just to be a long stick.
Die Speerspitze geht als allererstes Teil des Speers kaputt.

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