SOUTH MOUNTAIN,
THE NORTHERN BATTLES, SEPTEMBER 14, 1862,
KEEPING THE YANKS AWAY, by Tom Faulkner (all rights reserved)

RULESET FOR ALL SOUTH MOUNTAIN SCENARIOS

INTRODUCTION
For the South Mountain scenarios only, these scenario-specific rules should be read as addenda to the Fire and Fury (FnF) rule set as of the Great Eastern Battles Scenario Book (by Rich Hasenauer). In the case of a conflict, these scenario-specific rules govern. Mr. Hasenauer has not been consulted in connection with these battles.

GAME SCALE
Casting scale = 15mm, 1 linear inch = 60 yards, each contour level represents 200 ft elevation, 1 stand = 200 men,
1 battery = about 8 guns, battery frontage is one inch, and each game turn = 30 minutes.

MAP SIZE = 6 ' x 7 '

Click here to view full image: TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP

USA stands required for grand battle scenario = 2 Corps, 7 Div, 18 Inf Bgdes (123 stands total), 1 Cav Bgde (4 stands), 10 Btty
CSA stands required for grand battle scenario = 1 Corps, 2 Div, 11 Inf Bgdes (66 stands total), 1 Cav Bgde (3 stands), 7 Btty, 1 HBtty

CRESTLINES
Until a crest is reached, a unit is facing uphill terrain. Crests occur on levels 4, 5, 6 and 7. The front edge of a unit's stand determines whether the unit is on a crest. If the front edge is on the crestline the unit is on the crest, else it is on the forward or reverse slope. Note that a crest is considered another level for LOS purposes (but not for movement purposes, i.e., a crest is not a contour line).

MANEUVER MODIFICATIONS
Terrain effects:
(1) To ascend a contour line costs move for gentle & move for rough ( on rough descent), even on a road/trail. Apply the factor to the unit's movement allowance before applying any maneuver table penalties. A contour line is crossed when the front edge of a stand crosses it. A contour line is where the next elevation begins (except for crestlines). Each stand must pay the movement cost, e.g. if the brigade stand at the head of its brigade's march column ascended the contour in the previous movement phase, to bring the rest of the brigade onto the contour, the brigade should either deploy into line or each stand behind the command stand would pay the contour's movement cost to ascend.
(2) Climbing uphill over a stone wall costs -1". This rule is easy to forget. Rebs, you've been warned. 8-)
(3) Artillery can cross stone walls only at openings. There are lots of stone walls, and this rule is also easy to forget.
(4) Union units receive no benefit from trails, except that US artillery can use a trail as an opening in a stone wall (the US unit does not receive any trail movement bonus, however). Also, the USA may use East-West trails at the Gaps at the end of the game to determine line of communication for victory point terrain objectives.
(5) CSA units may use trails as they would roads, i.e., road bonuses apply to trails for CSA units.
(6) Orchard terrain is considered woods terrain. (As you may have inferred from LOS rules, woods and orchard do not block LOS if the spotting unit is 2 or more levels higher.)
(7) Woods terrain does not affect movement, the underlying terrain ,i.e., rough or gentle, dictates movement cost.

Reinforcements:

Reinforcements enter the map in march column as scheduled, without a maneuver roll. Visualize the incoming units as being lined up in march column off-map. For example, if there were 36" of reinforcements, the first 24" inches would enter the map in march column with the remaining 12" coming onto the map in the following turn. Reinforcements scheduled on that turn would line up behind the remaining 12" of units, unless the player elects to change formation and enter the map within six inches of the entry point. Once on the map, they must roll for movement as usual. Any part of a brigade on the map means that unit must roll to maneuver. USA reinforcements enter via the National Road on the eastern side of the map. CSA reinforcements enter via the western National Road. If the USA exits a unit from the western side of the map on the National Road, AND can maintain a line of communication (defined in the victory point terrain objectives section) along the Road to the Eastern map edge, then the CSA cannot bring on any reinforcements until the US line of communication is interdicted

Independent units:

CSA Independent units may benefit from Longstreet's leadership. During the "Replace fallen leaders, attach and detach leaders" Independent units may attach to a divisional leader or detach. Independent artillery units may unlimber without orders from a leader.

LINE OF SIGHT (LOS)
Blocking Terrain
Woods or orchard
can block LOS if the target is one level above or below the firer. Woods or orchard adjacent to, i.e., within 4 inches, the lower of the two units will block. Woods or orchard in any other position will not block. If the firer is two or more levels above or below the target, woods and orchard never block. Intervening units never block LOS between a firer and target on different levels. LOS between units two or more levels above or below each other can be blocked only by intervening terrain of the same level as (or higher than) the firer. (South Mountain is steep.)

Example: A Union unit on the forward slope of level 5 due south of Mountain House at Turner's Gap would be unable to see a Reb unit more than 2" deep in the woods due north of Mountain House on level 4. However, LOS would not be blocked if the Union unit was more than one level higher (e.g., on the crestline of level 5 or higher further south of Mountain House) than the same Reb unit.

Crestlines:
If units are 2" or closer to each other but separated by a crestline, LOS exists (see page 5 of the Eastern scenario book), and there is no uphill DRM for Musketry & Cannode and charge combat.

Uphill Artillery Geometry:
Uphill artillery shot and shell fire
requires a range of 6" for each contour (not including a crest). Canister range is unaffected. Follow this process to determine the necessary distance: determine the contour level of the target, determine the contour level of the firing unit, subtract the lower from the higher and multiply the difference by six inches. Example: To shell level 4, a btty on level 1 must be a minimum 18" away [(4-1)x6"].

MUSKETRY & CANNONADE
-1 DRM for firing uphill for both artillery and small arms, if half or more of the phasing units are doing so.

Confederate cavalry firepower is equal to the Union's in this scenario. Use the Union rating.

The maximum DRM in the M&C phase is + or - 1.

Union artillery support restriction: A USA battery may only support units of its division. Until they fire on a particular Union unit, CSA units not to the front (within the unit's firing arc) of that USA unit are not viable targets for the unit's divisional artillery. For example, Lane's batteries fire on the Kanawha Division as it ascends toward Fox's Gap - Lane's guns become reasonable targets for Cox's batteries. Until Lane's batteries fire on the Kanawha Division, they are NOT targets for Cox's batteries. If different divisions of the same Corps are jointly charging a position, both divisions' artillery may support the charge combat. Use reason to interpret this rule. Its intent is to prohibit a grand battery of 10 Union batteries opening the path for units of another Corps. Each Corps had its own frontage, as did each Division. The Union's artillery was particularly lethargic on September 14. If the players can't agree, roll the dice to settle the issue.

CHARGE COMBAT
Union Division and Corps Integrity:
Union units belonging to different corps cannot charge a position together. Union units of different divisions of the same corps can charge together ONLY IF the corps leader is attached. Union units of the same division can always charge together. Any Confederate units can charge a position together.

REPLACE the "Defending fav. ground…" and "Def. sunken road…" Die Roll Modifiers (DRMs) in the Charge Table of the basic rules with:

+1 cumulative, but limited to a maximum of +2 for defending each of the following :
An uphill position (unless or more attackers are at least at the same elevation).
Behind a stream (unless or more attackers are not crossing stream).
Behind a stone wall (unless or more attackers are not crossing the wall).
In the woods.

VICTORY POINT (VP) TERRAIN OBJECTIVES:
The Union scores 3 VPs for each of the terrain objectives (denoted by the pink squares on the map) that it controls at the end of the game ( 10 VPs for controlling the western exit of the National Road). Control is established by the last unit to have occupied the space However, to earn a VP for a terrain objective the Union must have a continuous line of communications (LOC) through Bolivar to the eastern end of the National Road. To determine the starting point of a LOC, from the terrain objective determine the nearest point on a road. East-west trails of the Old Sharpsburg Road, the National Road and the Zittlestown Road may be used by the USA for LOC purposes. CSA units may interdict the LOC by being within small arms range (and LOS) of the LOC, unless Union units occupy the interdicted area. The Confederates start the game in control of all VP objectives.

TWILIGHT
To reflect the vigor with which both sides pursued the conflict, twilight occurs on the 7:30 turn, even though historically it was around 6:30. Men fought until after dark. From McClellan's HQ the muzzle flashes from thousands of muskets and scores of guns lit up the mountain like a swarm of fireflies. See Additional Rules on Page 4 of the Eastern Scenario book for the effects of twilight.

OPTIONAL RULES: (If the players can't agree, roll the dice to settle the issue.)

(Alternative) Union artillery support restriction: A USA battery may only support units of its Corps. Until they fire on a particular Union Corps, CSA units not to the Corp's front (within the firing arc) are not viable targets for the Corps artillery. For example, Lane's batteries fire on the Kanawha Division as it ascends toward Fox's Gap - Lane's guns become reasonable targets for the batteries of the IX Corps divisions. Until Lane's batteries fire on the Kanawha Division, they are NOT targets for the batteries of IX Corps. Use reason to interpret this rule. Its intent is to prohibit a grand battery of 10 Union batteries opening the path for units of another Corps. Each Corps had its own frontage. The Union's artillery was particularly lethargic on September 14.

Gibbon's 4/1/I Iron Brigade: Gibbon's brigade must directly march on the National Road to its deployment area along the stone wall just West of the orchard about half way to Turner's Gap. Unless it is fired upon by other than counter-battery fire, it must remain there (in any formation) until it receives orders at 5:00. South Mountain was where the brigade earned its Iron nickname.

Stealthy Rebs: A CSA unit out of small arms range starts the game hidden unless it is in the clear within the LOS of a USA unit. The CSA unit may move and remain hidden. When spotted, the stand(s) of the CSA unit are immediately placed on the table (once spotted a unit cannot again become hidden):

Once it becomes within small arms range of a USA unit, or
Moves through clear terrain in the LOS of a Union unit, or
Once the CSA unit fires.

The CSA player(s) must write down the movement of hidden units. A referee or another friendly player should help keep the honor system working to the agreement of the USA player(s). While the US player(s) may know the initial deployment of the Reb units, they are hidden and may move stealthily until spotted.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
A GLEAM OF BAYONETS, Vol. 7 of Great Battles of the American Civil War. TSR, Inc. (SPI), 1983.
BEFORE ANTIETAM the Battle for South Mountain. Oxford University Press, 1992. John Michael Priest. ISBN: 0-19-510712-8.
BRUCE CATTON'S CIVIL WAR. Fairfax Press, 1984. Bruce Catton. ISBN: 0-517-447711.
FIRE AND FURY the American Civil War in Miniature. Richard W Hasenauer, 1990.
FIRE AND FURY Great Eastern Battles Scenario Book. Fire and Fury, 1996. Richard W Hasenauer.
FROM MANASSAS TO APPOMATTOX. Blue and Gray Press, circa 1895. Gen. James Longstreet, CSA. ISBN: 0-89009-848-4.
LANDSCAPE TURNED RED. Ticknor & Fields, 1983. Stephen W. Sears. ISBN: 0-89919-172-X.
SOUTH MOUNTAIN Prelude to Antietam. West End Games, Inc., 1984. R Berg with J Southard, game design.
THE CENTRAL MARYLAND HERITAGE LEAGUE, INC., a 501( c ) ( 3 ) trying to save the South Mountain Battlefields,
http://www.cmhl.org/html/smbf.html
THE OFFICIAL MILITARY ATLAS OF THE CIVIL WAR, "Battle-fields of South Mountain". Fairfax Press, 1983. Bureau of Topographical Engineers, Plate XVII-3. ISBN: 0-517-415666.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:
Vendors I use and recommend:
The Game Parlor, 13936 Metrotech Drive, Chantilly, VA 20151. 703-803-3114.
http://www.gameparlor.com/ .
Musket Miniatures, Jim McCarron,
MusketMin1@AOL.com.
Stone Mountain Miniatures , Dave B.,
StonMtnMin@AOL.com.
Grandiosity, Bob French,
http://www.erinet.com/bp/hist.html.
Ivor Janci ,
mjdesign@eagle.ais.net and publisher of Zouave.

Playtesters/Advisors/Sources of Inspiration:
Jim Hasenauer, for designing a great set of grand tactical rules, and several scenarios.
The Thursday Night Mob, Canberra Australia, esp. N. Mackenzie,
Neil.Mackenzie@ipaustralia.gov.au , and W. Whatman, Warrick.whatman@dpmc.gov.au; http://pcug.org.au/~wwhatman/war/index.html.
Jay Marlar,
jayhome@erols.com; R.C. Patton, rcmp1213@worldnet.att.net; Bob & Cleo Lieble; and Elliott.
Chuck Ten Brink,
http://www.cwartillery.org/artillery.html.
Jan Spoor,
jans@radix.net .
Dale Amsbaugh,
amsba933@uidaho.edu (Malvern Hill author: http://www.hrkropp.com/wizzb.html ) and his friend Scott.
FnF Scenarios (
http://www.hrkropp.com/wizzb.html ) and Rich Kropp's House Rules ( http://www.hrkropp.com/f&f.html ).
My wife Marcia, son Kyle, and daughter Jessica.

DESIGNER NOTES:
These battles are arguably at least as strategic as the battle at Sharpsburg 3 days later. Had the Yankees quickly captured the gaps over South Mountain, Lee's supply trains and reserve artillery would have been easy targets for the Army of the Potomac. The 13,000 US troops under siege by a reinforced Jackson at Harper's Ferry may have been saved. Longstreet's depleted I Corps could have been engaged without Jackson's support and probably destroyed in detail. Have fun playing it. The terrain is a bit complex, but worth the effort. I suggest that you use gray pipecleaners to represent the many stone walls of South Mountain.

I have taken a little license with the OOBs. Infantry and artillery strengths are as accurate as records and results allow. Playtesting revealed that Lane's btty needed to be strengthened to have its historical effect on the approaches to Wise's farm. As Gen'l Cox could tell, "the Rebels in the woods ahead [at the Wise farm of Fox's Gap] were still full of fight and their artillery had dead aim on Wise's fields, plowing furrows in the ground 'with a noise like the cutting of a melon rind'." Longstreet refers to "Lane's batteries" (note the plural) and Cutts' Battalion of artillery "posted to the [north] of the [Natl Rd] to cover by its fire the route just assigned for Hooker's march. Lane's 6 10-Lb Parrotts were part of Cutts' Bn, but the battalion's strength was around 28 guns; two bttys seemed reasonable. Pelham was an artillery master (soon to be recognized as such at Fredericksburg) and has been given a full btty despite using only a section at Fox's Gap. Pleasonton's division of cavalry was present, but they were nowhere to be found in the infantry battles. Accordingly, they have been excluded from the OOB. I have dogmatically placed Devin in command of the 8 companies of cavalry attached to the Kanawha division. Restrictions on Union integration of divisions and on artillery support are meant to reflect the methodical but somewhat lethargic Union attack.

I will try to answer cogent questions on rules interpretations if you email me at tfaul@erols.com , TIA, Tom.

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