Future Energy eNews June 3, 2003 Integrity Research Institute
1)Biofuel cell uses enzymes and electrode to produce electricity - Back to ethanol for fuel cells.
2)Republicans Plan a Hydrogen Economy-at Your Expense: It's "Nucular" - US nukes for hydrogen.
3) Keeping it Clean: Renewably Derived Hydrogen- Use renewable energy to make hydrogen.
4) Total World Oil Production Decreases -A complete assessment of 2002 by country.
5) US Natural Gas Production Headed for Energy Crisis -"Innovation in new technology and renewable energy sources are needed in the long term to improve the environment and meet rising demand." Very strong call for action by a conservative business journal, Investor's Business Daily.
6) Dr. Ilya Prigogine (1917- 2003)- Nobel Prize winner for proving order exists far from equilibrium.
1) Alcohol Powers Fuel Cell: Biofuel cell uses enzymes and electrode to produce electricity
MIT Technology ReviewApr 04, 2003
Researchers from Saint Louis University have developed a fuel cell that uses enzymes rather than metal and can be recharged by adding a few milliliters of alcohol. Enzymes commonly speed up chemical reactions in living cells.
In the biofuel cell, the enzymes convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, removing a proton in the process. The proton is then added to nicotinimide adenine dinucleotide. The fuel cell's electrode strips the proton back off to produce electricity.
Biofuel cells could eventually be used as a replacement for any rechargeable power source, including laptop and PDA batteries, according to the researchers. Key to the method is a polymer membrane modified with ammonium salts to increase the size of the membrane's pores and reduce its acidity. When enzymes are added to the membrane, they become trapped in the pores, which provide them with a stable environment.
Enzymes in the researchers' prototypes remained active for several weeks. Given the proper environment, enzymes theoretically last forever, according to the researchers.
Biofuel cells could be applied practically in five to ten years, according to the researchers. The work was presented at the 225th national meeting of the American Chemical Society in New Orleans on March 27, 2003.
2) Republicans Plan a Hydrogen Economy -
at Your Expense: It's Nucular
3) Keeping it Clean: Renewably Derived Hydrogen
Tuesday, June 3, 2003, 2:30 – 4:00 pm, HC-8, US Capitol Building
The House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses, the Sustainable Energy Coalition, and the Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) held a Congressional briefing on the exciting technologies available to produce hydrogen from renewable energy sources. The President has committed the United States to the development of a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure, and Congress is vigorously promoting extensive research and development on emerging hydrogen technologies. Hydrogen, however, is only as clean as the feedstock from which it is produced. The use of hydrogen that is extracted from fossil fuels does little to eliminate the emission of carbon dioxide and other pollutants, without carbon sequestration and other controls, instead shifting the emission point from the tailpipe to the smokestack. Deriving hydrogen from clean, renewable energy sources, however, is a viable and appealing alternative that is being developed today. Showcasing these technologies and discussing their related environmental and health benefits were the following panelists:
Briefing Panel:Ø Jeff Serfass, President, National Hydrogen Association Ø Tony Delucia, Chairman, Board of Directors, American Lung Association Ø Mike Nicklas, Chair, Board of Directors, American Solar Energy Association Ø Krishna Sapru, Director, Thermal Hydride Products, Energy Conversion Devices
Hydrogen technologies used in transportation and distributed generation applications produce little to no harmful emissions, and in the case of fuel cells, emit only water. These technologies can help the United States improve its energy efficiency, decrease its dependence on foreign oil, and enhance its environment. However, hydrogen is not an energy source, but rather, a highly-efficient energy storage medium that must be produced. A variety of feedstocks can be used to produce hydrogen, including fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewable energy sources, yet each comes with its own related environmental costs and/or benefits.
Any method that relies on fossil fuel feedstocks to produce hydrogen, such as steam methane reformation and coal gasification, also emits carbon dioxide and other pollutants as a byproduct of the production process. ‘Clean’ hydrogen, however, can be produced from renewable energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide or other harmful pollutants. Wind energy, for example, can be used to produce hydrogen through the chemical reaction that occurs when electricity is combined with water, a process known as electrolysis. This technology is currently under development and has continued to become less expensive over time. Furthermore, clean hydrogen can be produced from any of the renewable energy technologies, and does not require the development of controversial and expensive sequestration technologies. Realizing the multiple benefits of clean hydrogen is not a dream waiting to be realized, but rather, is a goal many are working towards today.
For more information about the briefing, please contact JR Drabick at EESI at 202-662-1886 firstname.lastname@example.org. Also, see www.eesi.org .
4) Total World Oil Production Decreases
Hal Fox, New Energy News, May, 2003 (Source: Global Energy Outlook, March 2003)
Total World Oil Production Declined 653,000 Barrels per Day in 2002 over 2001 Levels
Here is a list of the World's Crude Oil Production by Countries for the year 2002:
Middle East 19,409,000 bbls per day
Western Hemisphere 16,991,000
East. Europe & FSU 9,109,000
Asia Pacific 7,408,000
Western Europe 6,128,000
2002 Total 65,946,000 bbls per day
2001 Total 66,599,000
CHANGE - 653,000 bbls per day. [ - MINUS! - ]
There may be some effect on these figures as we move into 2003.
With the results of the war in Iraq, it is conceivable that the oild fields of Iraq can be improved and increase production without the oil revenues being used to support a dedicated terrorist.
Crude Oil Production and Capacity
The following figures are for the current production of oil from various countries. The first six (from Saudia Arabia to Norway) are considered to be pumping and marketing oil at maximum capacity. The second figure for the following five oil-producing nations is an estimate of the additional productive capacity.
Nation Current Spare
(All figures in thousands of barrels per day.)
Saudi Arabia 9,400
Iraq 2,400 400
U.A.E. 2,200 150
Nigeria 2,200 50
Kuwait 1,950 150
Venezuela 1,550 800
TOTAL 46,040 1,550
It is to be noted that the world's maximum oil production is not much greater than the current rate of consumption. It is also important that some of the world's oil supply be saved for future use as chemical feedstocks for the hundreds of thousands of chemical products that are made from oil.
[Reviewed by Hal Fox, Ed. J. New Energy. Information courtesy of Gordon B. Moody, Editor/Publisher, Global Energy Outlook.]email@example.com
5) The Nation's Next Energy Crisis Won't be at the Corner Gas Station
David Isaac, Investors Business Daily, June 2, 2003 p. A14 (excerpts)
In the 1990's natural gas was hailed as the growth fuel for the future. It was relatively cheap, burned cleanly and polluted less. Power plants that used the fuel were easy to build with reliable construction schedules. But it's become apparent that the early hosannas extolling the wonders of natural gas were overblown. Prices are now about 46 per million Btu up from an average price of $2 in the 1990's...The basic problem is overreliance on natural gas for electricity. "Policies that were established for the last five to seven years have resulted in almost all new power capacity being based on natural gas," said R.W. Jewell, business vice president of energy for Dow Chemical Co.
Even if the US were to open up all known natural gas reservoirs to drilling, it would only help temporarily. Most industry watchers agree that the key issue is the need to diversify supply. "The answer is for the country to move to a more diversified electricity mix," Jewell said, including "some nuclear, some clean coal, some conservation and some based on natural gas."
5a)Natural Gas Woes Won't Disappear Unless Gov't Acts
William Stavropoulos, Investors Business Daily, Perspective, June 2, 2003 (excerpts)
World oil prices have fallen as the Iraqi conflict has subsided, but a similar drop in natural gas prices has not occurred...Millions of manufacturing jobs have already been lost in recent years, and history shows that high and voltile energy costs typically lead to recession.
What's the economic toll of sustained high natural gas prices?...One out of every two homes are heated by natural gas...Further, the amount of natural gas used to generate electricity has risen 33% in the past five years and will likely grow an additional 60% by 2015...The current US supply of natural gas hasn't kept pace with increasing demand. Indeed, annual US output has been stagnant at 19 trillion cubic feet since 1995, even though demand has continued to climb.
Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan recently and correctly highlighted the "contradictory federal policy" of simultaneously driving up demand while restricting new supply. Try as it might, Congress can't repeal the law of supply and demand. Congress must act now to ensure a diverse and flexible supply of energy, encourage conservation by all energy users, and create incentives to develop renewable energy sources that are economically competitive...
But with suply problems looming as early as this winter, Congress and the administration must do even more if we are to avoid another spike in natural gas prices -- and the choking off of the economic recovery. A sound energy policy will place the US on the path to a reliable and affordable supply of domestic energy...An immediate return to a diversified and robust energy mix -- not a single fuel for growth -- is essential, including the full range of traditional and alternative energy sources. Innovation in new technology and renewable energy sources are needed in the long term to improve the environment and meet rising demand. Better energy efficiency and reduction in the energy intensity of processes and equipment will help balance supply and demand...
Today's natural gas crisis was largely created by government policy and now must be solved by government policy. It requires immediate action by our elected leaders -- for our nation's sake.
6) Viscount Ilya Prigogine 1917-2003
Ilya Prigogine, the winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, has died aged 86 in Brussels. At the time of his death, Prigogine was director of the International Solvay Institute for Physics and Chemistry in Brussels - a post he has held since 1959. He was also professor of physics and chemical engineering at the University of Texas where he founded the Centre for Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. This centre was later named after him.
Ilya Prigogine was born in Moscow in 1917. He moved to Germany with his family in 1921, and then to Belgium eight years later. He graduated with a PhD in chemistry from the Université Libre in Brussels in 1941 and remained there to continue with his research in thermodynamics.
Prigogine is best known for extending the second law of thermodynamics to systems that are far from equilibrium, and demonstrating that new forms of ordered structures could exist under such conditions. Prigogine called these 'dissipative structures' because they cannot exist independently of their environment. According to the second law of thermodynamics, ordered systems disintegrate into disordered ones. However, Prigogine showed that the formation of dissipative structures allows order to be created from disorder in non-equilibrium systems. These structures have since been used to describe phenomena such as the growth of cities and the physics of car traffic.
Prigogine received many awards and prizes during his life, including the Medaille d'Or (France) and the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun (Japan). He wrote almost a thousand research articles and many books, which include "Order out of Chaos" (1989) and "The End of Certainty" (1997).
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