1 Rankinen’s version was published in Oulu under the title Yhden suuren vaan armoitetun syntisen julistus itsestänsä. Airas’ version, Yhden Suuren mutta armoitetun Syndisen juttelemus Itsestänsä, was published in Helsinki as an appendix in his Kirkollista elämää ja hengellisiä liikkeitä Tornionjokilaakson alaosilla 1675-1809.

2 The ages in this sentence are given in Rankinen’s version as "in my ninth year" and "in my twelfth year."

3 According to Rankinen’s version, this occurred "in my twenty-eighth year."

4 In Airas’ version, this clause reads: "Minä sain myös totisesti andexi andamuxen" (I also truly received forgiveness).

5 See verses 7-8 of hymn No. 259 (Ah, Herra Christ’) in the old (1701) Finnish hymnal or No. 61 in Uskovaisten virsiä (Ironwood: 1953).

6 The article has been republished in, inter alia, G. Wikmark, Lars Levi Laestadius och Lappflickan Maria (Stockholm: 1961), pp. 26-35.

7 This title corresponds with that of the original Swedish article: "Lappflickan: Ett prov på ställningen i Svenska ` Lappmarken."

8 According to church records, Milla was actually born on November 1, 1813. See Lars Levi Laestadius och Lappflickan Maria, pp. 206, 207.

9 Milla’s first Communion occurred on January 1, 1827. See G. Wikmark, Lars Levi Laestadius’ väg till nya födelsen (Lund: 1980), p. 207.

10 A book published anonymously by Peter Jonsson Topp in 1823.

11 This sentence indicates that Berglund is probably the author of this article.

12 This is presumably Margareta Lovisa Selahn, widow of Erik Peter Selahn (1789-1830), pastor of Säbrå and friend of Brandell. See Lars Levi Laestadius och Lappflickan Maria, p. 35.

13 Many readers (läsare) were so radical in their criticism of the church that they refrained from participation in its activities and some eventually separated from it.

14 Tidskriften Ens Ropandes Röst i Öknen (Pieksämäki: 1994), pp. 41, 42.

15 "Kertomus L. L. Laestadiuksesta," Sanomia Siionista, May 1890, pp. 94, 95; included in J. Raattamaa, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset (Helsinki: 1976), pp. 362, 363.

16 For Wikmark’s own account, see, in particular, Lars Levi Laestadius’ väg till nya födelsen, pp. 198-204.

17 The title and author are combined in the Swedish original as follows: Andeligt Bref till en om sin salighet bekymrad person inom Norrbottens Län, skrifvet af Pehr Brandel, under dess Student-tid (Spiritual Letter to a Person Troubled Over His Salvation in Norrbotten Province, Written by Pehr Brandel in His Student Days).

18 See Luther’s Church Postil, Sermon on the ninth Sunday after Trinity.

19 This is the old Swedish hymnal of 1695, which was in use during Brandell’s "student days." This hymnal (on which the 1701 Finnish hymnal is based) was replaced in 1819 by a new hymnal, which was one of the "new books" criticized by the readers for their liberal innovations. See, for example, Tidskriften Ens Ropandes Röst i Öknen, pp. 360-397.

20 L. L. Laestadius, Rovasti Lars Levi Laestadiuksen saarnat puhtaina (Pieksämäki: 1984), pp. 701-705.

21 "Saarna 4 Rukouspäivänä (L. L. Laestadius)," Armonsanoma, No. 9, 1911 (lisälehti), pp. 161-175. It is possible that this version, which contains some minor variations, may be based on a no longer extant copy made by Laestadius himself. See M. Miettinen, Lestadiolainen heräysliike I. Perustajan aika (Helsinki: 1942), p.76.

22 Even if the Bible does not identify David as the writer of Psalm 115, the words of the psalm reflect the common sentiments of believers.

23 In the places where the manuscript has "painted sleighs" (maalatut reet), the Armonsanoma version has "cards" (kortit).

24 Laestadius is apparently thinking of John 9:24, where the Jews tell the man born blind, who received his sight from Jesus: "Give God the praise; we know that this man (Jesus) is a sinner."

25 The bracketed words are supplied from the Armonsanoma version. The Slough of Despond (epäilyksen suo) was coined by John Bunyan in his Pilgrim’s Progress, a book used by Laestadius. See the Finnish edition, translated by J. J. Malmberg from German, Yhden Kristityn Vaellus Autuahan Ijankaikkisuuteen (Helsinki: 1857), p. 15.

26 See I Corinthians 4:13 in the Finnish Bible.

27 The bracketed portions of this paragraph have been supplied from the Armonsanoma version.

28 Compare Mark 14:61 with John 9:24.

29 The manuscript ends abruptly at this point. The remainder of the sermon is translated from the Armonsanoma version.

30 This 1847 autobiography has been translated from Raattamaa, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset, pp. 19-21.

31 See hymn no. 90 (Hädässän’ huudan Herraa), verse 1, in the old (1701) Finnish hymnal. The lyrics are revised in newer hymnals but remain unchanged in Uskovaisten virsiä (No. 19).

32 Translated from "Elämäkertoja II, Juhani Juhonpoika Raattamaa," Kristillinen Kuukauslehti, No. 11, 1881, pp. 163-166, No. 12, pp. 177-180, and No. 1, 1882, pp. 1-5. This biography was evidently written by Karl Heikel, the editor of Kristillinen Kuukauslehti, on the basis of an 1880 autobiography of Raattamaa that is no longer extant. See E. A. Juhonpieti, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset (Loimaa: 1979), pp. 88, 89. The biography is reprinted in L. Typpö, Kirjeitä virvoitukseksi köyhille matkustajille elämän tiellä (Tampere: 1907), pp. 168-174. The translation of the words of Laestadius cited in the biography is based on a comparison with their original form in his periodical Ens Ropandes Röst i Öknen.

33 Martti Miettinen has determined from judicial records that Raattamaa found the wallet while leaving church on Christmas of 1842. Raattamaa demanded a third of the money in it, and only when the owner was leaving to request a summons did Raattamaa agree to return all the money except for the five rix-dollars that had been offered as a reward. The owner asserted, however, that part of the money was missing and summoned Raattamaa to give an explanation in court. The matter was not dealt with until February, 1844, because Raattamaa, relying on pretexts, did not appear at the 1843 session. The court decided that after one year he should take an oath of innocence, which he did. See Miettinen, p. 43.

34 Laestadius could not have spoken of the Lapp girl until early 1844, after his own conversion, which occurred on January 1, 1844. Raattamaa’s conversion did not occur until early 1846.

35 This first mission school was established in 1848. See Ens Ropandes Röst i Öknen, p. 99.

36 Laestadius defines the name Raattamaa as meaning one who clears the land and breaks the soil. See Ens Ropandes Röst i Öknen, p. 91.

37 Laestadius, who is being cited here, does not always clearly distinguish between canonical and apocryphal books. See Proverbs 31:6-7, Ecclesiastes 9:7 and the apocryphal Ecclesiasticus 31: 27-28.

38 A. Laitinen, Muistoja Lapin kristillisyydestä (Oulu: 1985), pp. 26, 27.

39 H. Westeson, Ödemarksprofetens lärjungar (Stockholm: 1930), pp. 26-28.

40 S. Lohi, Sydämen kristillisyys. Lars Levi Laestadius ja lestadiolaisen herätyksen alkuvaiheet (Oulu: 1989), pp. 313-329, and O. Brännström, Den Laestadianska själavårdstraditionen i Sverige under 1800-talet (Uppsala: 1962), pp. 177, 209, 212.

41 Rovasti Lars Levi Laestadiuksen saarnat puhtaina, p. 866.

42 Miettinen, pp. 260, 261.

43 A. Zidbäck, Pohjolan suurin maallikkosaarnaaja (Helsinki: 1941), pp. 24, 25. See Zidbäck’s later views in Ole vapaa vapaaksi ostettu lauma (Oulu: 1985), pp. 8, 24, 33-44.

44 U. Saarnivaara, He elivät Jumalan voimassa (Suolahti: 1983), p. 39; Muistoja Lapin kristillisyydestä, p. 36.

45 Tidskriften Ens Ropandes Röst i Öknen, pp. 43-53, 97. Uninformed confessionists have acquired a dramatic setting for the event which many view as the origin of their religion by shifting Laestadius’ account of the earthquake (p. 52) to Raattamaa’s first use of the keys.

46 Raattamaa, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset, p. 390.

47 Raattamaa, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset, pp. 246, 247.

48 Lars Levi Laestadius’ väg till nya födelsen, p. 122.

49 See, for example, Tidskriften Ens Ropandes Röst i Öknen, pp. 398-437.

50 Erik Johnsen (1844-1941), also known as Junsan Erkki, lived in Lyngen, Norway, where he was the leader of the Erikians (Erikianere). In 1992, these Laestadians, disagreeing on the issues of marriage after divorce and the meaning of "days" in the Biblical account of creation, divided into two groups: Fundamentalists (fundamentalistene) and Liberals (liberale). See Thor Fremmegård, "Kort historisk bakgrunn og oversikt over Læstadianismen," Fast Grunn, No. 4, 1997, p. 227.

51 Miettinen, p. 256.

52 Miettinen, p. 257.

53 L. L. Laestadius, Lars Levi Laestadius’ brev till Peter Wieselgren (Uppsala: 1946), p. 271.

54 See Miettinen, p. 261, and S. Paulaharju, Kiveliöitten kansaa. Pohjois-Ruotsin suomalaisseuduilta (Porvoo: 1961), p. 298. Paulaharju’s dating of this incident in 1854 is, according to Miettinen, an evident error.

55 Miettinen, p. 83.

56 Rovasti Lars Levi Laestadiuksen saarnat puhtaina, p. 278.

57 Translation of an article written by Raattamaa’s second wife, Karoliina: "Juhani Raattamaan viime hetkistä," Armonsanoma, No. 12 (lisälehti), 1911, pp. 233, 234.

58 Translated from a copy of the letter made by Olli Koskamo, which is now in the Oulu provincial archives.

59 Tapani can only mean here too, as he has already stated so clearly, that the conscience is freed not by the act of confessing but by the absolution that is received. In a November 13, 1875 letter to H. Lahti, Raattamaa writes that "confession of sin is done correctly even if one confesses before only one Christian and then more broadly, as need demands, one receives assurances [vakuutuksia] in the congregation on behalf of God in the name of the Lord." In the same letter, Raattamaa also cites Christ’s treatment of Peter’s sin in John 21:15-17 as an example of veiled words. See Raatamaa Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset, p. 163. Tapani is apparently rebutting the charge that converts were confessing their sins secretly rather than publicly. Private confession was evidently viewed as inappropriate for "those entering from the outside," who were expected to confess publicly. See, for example, L. L. Laestadius, Dårhushjonet. En blick i nådens ordning (Helsinki: 1949), vol. 1, pp. 241-243.

60 Erkki Antti’s autobiography was first published in an edited and revised form in "Elämäkertoja III, Erkki Antti Antinpoika Juhonpieti," Kristillinen Kuukauslehti, Nos. 2 and 3, 1882, from which it was reprinted in Typpö, pp. 175-184. The English translation is based, however, on the original version as published by Raittila in Juhonpieti, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset, pp. 80-89. This is apparently one of a number of autobiographies acquired by Heikel in the fall of 1880. See K. Heikel, "Några ord med anledning af biskop Landgrens artikel om læstadianismen och bigtläran," Teologisk tidskrift, 1881, pp. 214, 215.

61 The original version of this book, Evangelische Gnadenordnung in vier Gespräche, was written by David Hollaz (died 1771). This author is often misidentified with his grandfather of the same name, orthodox Lutheran theologian David Hollaz (1648-1713). See the entry on Hollaz in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Tübingen: 1912), vol. 3, pp. 116, 117.

62 A letter written by Erkki Antti in the fall of 1872 to Johanna Matinheikki contains the following passage: "Last Sunday morning I was shown the late Pastor first, then the apostles, then the prophets, and finally the Saviour, and then the immortal spirit was about to separate from the mortal body. But this they all, except the Saviour, showed with their being and demeanor, that they were all sinners and have been saved by grace and that we too will soon be allowed to join them at the wedding of the Lamb." See Juhonpieti, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset, p. 56.

63 This undated letter, first published by Aatu Laitinen in Valituita kristittyin kirjeitä (Oulu: 1884), vol. I, pp. 28-30, has been translated from the texts in Typpö, pp. 98-100, and Juhonpieti, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset, pp. 70, 71. As the letter indicates, it was apparently written in 1877 after the inspection of the Pajala congregation, carried out by Bishop Lars Landgren on June 16-17, 1877. Raittila seems to believe the recipient was Juhani Raattamaa. (See Juhonpieti, Kirjeet ja kirjoitukset, p. 70.)

64 This translation is based on the text published in Kristillinen Kuukauslehti, No. 4, 1882, pp. 49-54. A revised version is published in Typpö, pp. 186-191.

65 J. O. Lindström, reporting the death of the two preachers, writes: "Let us comfort our hearts, dear brothers and sisters, with this hope of living faith that this living road that has been placed under our feet will soon take us too to that great assembly where we can sit at the Communion table with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. We recall that our departed brothers often preached to us about that assembly. And when at times the homeland shore was revealed even to them, they played the harps of God and said, "Lord Jesus! How great are the services that we are already in by faith!" And Brother Roanpää often said, "Lord Jesus! Brothers, Look! Jesus stands in his bloody form among us!" Similarly, Stephen saw heaven opened and Jesus standing on the right hand of God. See "Ilmoitus kahden saarnaajan kuolemasta Ameriikassa," Sanomia Siionista, No. 8, 1896, p. 158.

66 Translated from "Elämäkertani," Sanomia Siionista, No. 6B, 1896, pp. 114-120.

67 This mission school was established in Muoniovaara in 1852. See Miettinen, pp. 240, 259, 260.

68 Translated from Kristillinen Kuukauslehti, No. 10 (lisälehti), 1889, pp. 166, 167.

69 Translated from J. Pollari, Apostolis-Lutherilaisten hajaantumisen syyt Amerikassa (Duluth: 1920).

70 The minutes of the 1908 Calumet "reconciliation meeting" contain the following passage cited from a letter from Pollari that was read at the meeting: "The fear of the Lord is necessary for Christians on their journey even until death, as Peter says in the seventeenth verse of the first chapter of his first epistle, ‘that you would pass the time of your sojourning here in fear,’ and as the Holy Bible teaches us in great measure." See Pöytäkirja tehty Amerikan Kristittyjen kokouksessa Calumetissa, Michigan, Kesäkuun 15-16-17-18-19 p. v. 1908, p. 8.

71 Pollari fails to mention after Takkinen’s death his supporters had divided into two groups: the Old Firstborn of Olli Matoniemi and the Little Firstborn of Kalle Ojala.

72 See Sermon on the Seventeenth Sunday after Trinity in L. L. Laestadius, Uusi Postilla, p. 424.

73 The copy of the Finnish letter in author’s collection lacks a specific date.

74 Translation of a clipping in author’s collection that lacks a specific date.

75 Pajala, a Conventionist, was later baptized by immersion and became a Pentecostal pastor in Ontario.

76 Translated from a photocopy of a handwritten document that appears to be a script or transcript of a phonograph record. It is said that Pollari’s children were not in faith at the time the recording was made.

77 Translated from L. Typpö, Armo ja Totuus. Ynnä Kristillisiä kirjeitä (Tampere: 1904), pp. 8-15.

78 See song No. 64 (Jo mahtaisin yötä ja päivääkin kiittää) in Uskovaisten lauluja (Marengo: 1948), and the translation, No. 292 (Now all through the day and the night) in Songs of Believers (Hancock: 1981).

79 Translated from Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 4, 1912, pp. 66, 67.

80 See song No. 130 (Neitseet Siionissa), verse 1, in Uskovaisten lauluja.

81 See song No. 19 (O Ylkä Jeesus, rakkahin), verse 19, in Uskovaisten lauluja.

82 From C. Kulla, The Streams of Life (Brush Prairie: 1984-85), p. 296.

83 Translated from Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 6, 1912, pp. 107-109.

84 Translated from Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 7, 1913, pp. 179-182.

85 See song No. 132 (Oi veljet, siskot, iloitkaa jo tästä), verses 10, 11, in Uskovaisten lauluja, and the translation, No. 153 (O brothers, sisters) in Songs of Believers.

86Raattamaa was born on October 9, 1849 and died on April 3, 1921. The death date of April 5, 1921 on the gravestone in New York Mills contradicts the death records of the Itasca County Courthouse and is evidently an error. Accurate data is given in P. Raittila, Lestadiolaisuuden matrikkeli ja bibliografia (Helsinki: 1967), p. 163.

87 The original Finnish letter is preserved in the collection of Pastor Oskar Haapaniemi of Övertorneå. Erkki Antti’s full name, as usually rendered, is Erkki Antti Antinpoika Juhonpieti.

88 Finnish lyrics: Minun ylpiän, ynsiän sisun’ sovitti sun nöyryytes. See No. 148 (Jesu elon’ autuuteni) in the old (1701) hymnal or No. 31 in Uskovaisten virsiä.

89 Translated from Armonsanoma, No. 4, (lisälehti), 1911, p. 74. The recipient is not identified.

90 Translated from Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 3, 1913, pp. 54-56.

91 Heliste was the first to raise his voice against the Reawakenists at the 1911 Oulu Reconciliation Meeting. See Pöytäkirja Lestadiolaisten ryhmien sovintokokouksesta Oulussa Maalisk. 22-23 päivinä 1911, pp. 19, 20.

92 Reawakenist envoys Mikko Saarenpää and Juho Pyörre visited America in 1910-11 and 1912-13.

93 Translated from Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 9, 1919, pp. 193-195. The recipients are not identified.

94 Raattamaa is quoting the song "Kosk’ tulee onnellinen." See song No. 107, verse 1, in Uskovaisten lauluja, and the translation, No. 204 (When comes that blessed morning) in Songs of Believers.

95 Translated from Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 11, 1913, pp. 302-305.

96 Juho Kanniainen and Herman Ahola visited America in 1912-13.

97 That true words can be used falsely is shown by God’s statement to Job’s friends, who had assailed him with words that are true in other contexts: "Ye have not spoken of me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath" (Job 42:7). Thus Luther is able to say, "Whoever offends in one matter is false in all, for all scripture is used to serve lies, to change them into truth. Wherefore, if you lie, you lie even when you tell the truth." See Die Promotionsdisputation von Joachim Mörlin, 10 September 1540, in the Weimar edition of Luther’s works, vol. 39, II, p. 127.

98 Translated from Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 12, 1914, pp. 368-369.

99 Translated from Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 7, 1914, pp. 212-213.

100 The Finnish version of this document was obtained in 1969 from Kosonen’s friends, who claimed that it had been written for publication. It was subsequently published by Hugo Hepokoski in "Ns. kosolainen laestadiolaisuus," Amerikan Uutiset, 22 Aug. 1969.

101 See Proverbs 28:13.

102 Original lyrics: Tuo taivaan konsti suur, sitä hukkaan etsit juur siellä, jossa järjen avul, viisaaks pyritään. Jonka sitä mieli tekee lapseks tulkoon hän. See No. 77 (Ei yksinkertaiseks) in Oskari Jussila’s Siionin Laulut ja Virret, fourth (1928) edition. The notorious twelfth (1961) edition, published as part of an unabashed drive to eliminate "Pollarite songs," contains, as No. 85, lyrics that are radically revised.

103 Itänen is listed alone as the "preacher" of about 50 Laestadians in Fort Bragg in V. Rautanen, Amerikan Suomalainen Kirkko (Hancock: 1911), p. 31. According to a 1946 obituary in Minnesotan Uutiset, preacher Erkki Luoma (1867-1946) had, at the time of his death (October 5), served as "pastor" of the Fort Bragg Apostolic Lutheran Congregation nearly 35 years. If this is true, the two preachers may have shared pastoral duties in Fort Bragg.

104 Translation of "Epäjumalisuuden turmio," Siionin Lähetyslehti, No. 3, 1926, pp. 40, 41.

105 The recipient of this letter was Hanna Itänen (Mrs. Alex Törmä) of Berkeley, California.

106 See hymn No. 1 (O Jumalan Karitsa!), verse 3, in Uskovaisten virsiä.

107 According to church records, Sam Kovala was born on February 15, 1879, and, according to family sources, he died on March 20, 1965 in Ashland, Wisconsin.

108 Among the songs composed by Kalle Johnson of Embarrass, Minnesota, is the well-known "Katson Golgatalle päin," the lyrics of which came to him "while working in the woods." See song No. 260 in Uskovaisten lauluja. (The lyrics are abridged, revised and attributed to Paul Heideman in newer songbooks.)

109 Preacher Walter Isaacs of Deer River, Minnesota, also used the Finnish name Valter Kuoppala but was commonly known as "Kuoppa-Valteri." These comments indicate that this sermon could not have been delivered until after February 24, 1952, the date of Isaacs’ death.

110 Kovala failed to read the portion of the text in brackets.

111 The bracketed words had to be paraphrased somewhat due to the emotional tone in which they were spoken and the poor quality of the tape.

112 The recipients of this letter were Hugo and Martha Hepokoski, who then lived in Richmond, California.

113 Finnish: "Mikäs meillä on hätänä ja mikäs meillä on täällä kuin verinen risti heloittaa tuon velkakirjan päällä?" See song No. 63 (Ilolla nyt laulakaa), verse 13, in Uskovaisten lauluja, and the translation, No. 89 (With joy now carol everyone) in Songs of Believers. Also see Rovasti Lars Levi Laestadiuksen saarnat puhtaina, Sermon on the Twenty-Second Sunday after Trinity, p. 469, and the 1857 reading examination sermon, p. 768.

114 Finnish: "Rakkauden armolahja. Velkakirja mitätöity."

115 See Hebrews 9:12.

116 See Psalm 23:3 in the Finnish Bible.

117 The recipients of this letter were Warren and Margaret Hepokoski.

118 In an 1856 sermon, Laestadius paraphrases, from Luther’s August 1, 1521 letter to Melanchthon, the famous "pecca fortiter" passage so often quoted by Catholics trying to refute Luther’s doctrine: "Luther writes to doubters and slaves of unbelief, ‘Commit even more sin, but believe even more firmly. Sin we must commit as long as we live. From the Lamb who takes away the sins of the world, sin will not separate us, were we to commit fornication and murder even a thousand times a thousand in one day.’ " See Sermon on the Second Day of Rogation in Rovasti Lars Levi Laestadiuksen saarnat puhtaina, p. 619.

119 See Hebrews 12:1 in the Finnish Bible. By a convoluted method of reasoning, many apostate Laestadians base their doctrine of compulsory confession on this passage.

120 See L. L. Laestadius, Kolmas Postilla (Pori: 1924), Sermon on the Second Day of Rogation, p. 375.

121 Martha Himanka of Kalajoki died in 1993.

122 The late William and Helen Yliniemi of Osage, Minnesota.

123 Ida has often told how she was abruptly excommunicated by telephone after refusing to concur in the excommunication of her niece, Aila Hietala, from the Stockholm congregation.

124 Lyrics from song "Laiva se on rakennettu." See song No. 241, verse 14, in Uskovaisten lauluja.

125 Hilda Joutsi of Kalajoki died in 1983.