TITLE

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1

EARLY ISSUES

Cold Jumping and Holy Flesh

Confession of Sin

Compulsory Confession

Public Confession

The Three-Cubit God

Pastor Grape and Princess Eugénie

The Oral and Written Word

The Bible a Dead Letter?

Christ’s Descent into Hell

CHAPTER 2

The Reawakening

Origin

The Third Use of the Law

The Narva Reaction

The Oulu Reconciliation Meeting

Issues and Schisms

Typpö’s Summary

CHAPTER 3

THE FIRSTBORN GROUP

Origin

Takkinen Era Begins

The Hallites

Who are the Firstborn?

Takkinen Era Ends

The 1897 Lannavaara Services

Did Raattamaa Bless Purnu?

The 1901 Gällivare Meeting

Internal Dissension

Conservative Views of the Firstborn

Chapter 4

THE LITTLE FIRSTBORN

Origin

The Annual Conventions

Evert Määttälä’s Book

Expulsion of the Conventionists

CHAPTER 5

THE SRK GROUP

Origin

Carnality and the 1916 Discussion

The Fear of the Lord

Cliques Emerge in Finland

Toivo Korpela

The Revised Finnish Bible

The Flying Ark

Millennialism

The Kalajoki Revival

Ansamaa’s Recantation

The 1939 Kemi Resolution

The Drive Against Simppala

The Campaigns Against Kosonen

Recantations of Kosonen’s Friends

Expulsion of the Clericalists

The Authority to Forgive Sins

The Case of Daniel Airas

Minor Groups

Sillanpää’s Group

CHAPTER 6

FRAGMENTATION IN NORWAY

Koskamo and Palovaara

Erik Johnsen

Vanhala vs. Brune

CHAPTER 7

DISINTEGRATION IN AMERICA

Three Legalist Preachers

Paul Heideman vs. John Pollari

Heidemanian Accusations

The Reaction of the Evangelicals

The Törölä - AALC Schism

Lamppa, Mäki and Koskela

Arthur Romberg

Ben Salmela

Matt Reed vs. Aunes Salmela

Melvinites and Davidites

APPENDIX 1

A Firstborn View of the Differences Between the Conservatives (East) and the Firstborn (West)

APPENDIX 2

Minutes of the March 11, 1897 Meeting in Vittangi

APPENDIX 3

Letter Written by Erkki Antti to America in 1898

APPENDIX 4

Letter Written by Erkki Antti to a Brother in Gällivare in 1900

APPENDIX 5

Excerpt from a 1949 Letter of John Koskela

APPENDIX 6

An 1898 Letter of a Conservative

BIBLIOGRAPHY